The Philippine government takes place in an organized framework of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic whereby the president is both the head of state and the head of government. This system revolves around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent branches: the legislative branch (the law-making body), the executive branch (the law-enforcing body), and the judicial branch (the law-interpreting body). Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the president. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamber congress—the Senate (the upper chamber) and the House of Representatives (the lower chamber). Judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body.

Executive Branch

The executive branch is headed by the President who functions as both the head of state and the head of government. The president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The president is elected by popular vote to a term of six years. The president, then, appoints (and may dismiss) his/her cabinet members whom he/she presides over. The executive seat of government is administered officially from Malacañang Palace—also the official residence of the president—in Manila. The President may no longer run for re-election, unless he/she becomes president through constitutional succession and has served for no more than four years as president.

The second highest official, the vice-president is first in line to succession should the president resign, be impeached or die in office. The vice-president usually, though not always, may be a member of the president's cabinet. If there is a vacancy in the position of Vice President, the President will appoint any member of Congress (usually a party member) as new Vice President. The appointment will be validated by a three-fourths vote of Congress voting separately.

Legislative Branch

The remainder of the House seats are designated for sectoral representatives elected at large through a complex "party list" system, hinging on the party receiving at least 2% to 6% of the national vote total. The upper house is located in Pasay City, while the lower house is located in Quezon City. The district and sectoral representatives are elected with a term of three years. They can be reelected but they are no longer eligible to run for a fourth consecutive term. The senators are elected to a term of six years. They can be reelected but they are no longer eligible to run for a third consecutive term. The House of Representatives may opt to pass a resolution for a vacancy of a legislative seat that will pave way for a special election. The winner of the special election will serve the unfinished term of the previous district representative; this will be considered as one elective term. The same rule applies in the Senate however it only applies if the seat is vacated before a regular legislative election.

Judiciary Branch

The judiciary branch of the government is headed by the Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, all appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council. Other court types of courts, of varying jurisdiction around the archipelago, are the:

Lower Collegiate Courts

  • Court of Appeals
  • Court of Tax Appeals
  • Sandiganbayan

Regular Courts

  • Regional Trial Courts
  • Metropolitan Trial Courts
  • Municipal Trial Courts
  • Municipal Trial Courts in Cities
  • Municipal Circuit Trial Courts

Muslim Courts

  • Sharia District Courts
  • Sharia Circuit Courts


President Benigno “Noynoy” S. Aquino III is an economist by training and a public official by profession. He served three terms as Congressman of the Second District of Tarlac before placing sixth in the May 2007 Senatorial elections that earned him a 6-year mandate as Senator of the Republic of the Philippines.




July 1, 2007 – June 29, 2010

A. Chairman, Committee on Local Government

B. Vice Chairman, Committee on Justice and Human Rights

C. Committee Membership

  • Accounts
  • Constitutional Amendments, Revisions of Codes and Laws
  • Economic Affairs
  • Education, Arts and Culture
  • Environment and Natural Resources
  • National Defense and Security
  • Peace, Unifications and Reconciliation
  • Public Works
  • Trade and Commerce
  • Urban Planning, Housing and Resettlement
  • Ways and Means
  • Youth, Women and Family Relations

D. Priority Bills

  • Senate Bill No. 1370 – an act granting an annual productivity incentive to all workers in the private sector, establishing mechanisms for its implementation, and for other purposes
  • Senate Bill No. 1719 – an act limiting the re-appointment of presidential nominees by-passed by the Commission on Appointments (CA)
  • Senate Bill No. 1710 – an act banning the re-appointment of a regular member of the Judicial and Bar Council (JBC) who has already served the full term
  • Senate Bill No. 2035 – an act requiring the regular maintenance and preservation of all public infrastructures, establishing mechanisms for its implementation and for other purposes
  • Senate Bill No. 2036 – an act increasing the penalties for non-compliance of the prescribed increases and adjustments in the wage rates of workers, amending for the purpose Republic Act No. 6727

E. Resolutions

  • Senate Resolution No. 190 – investigating the exercise and implementation of the powers of local chief executives under Republic Act 7160 otherwise known as the “Local Government Code of 1991” in relation to Republic Act 6975 known as the “Philippine National Police (PNP) Law” and Republic Act 8551 known as “The PNP Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998”
  • Senate Resolution No. 205 – investigating the bomb explosion at the House of Representatives, condemning in the strongest possible terms the recent bombing at the House of Representatives, extending sympathies to the victims and calling on authorities to conduct a swift and thorough investigation into this incident
  • Senate Resolution No. 229 – directing the appropriate Senate committees to conduct an inquiry, in aid of legislation, on the circumstances leading to the arrest and ‘processing’ of journalists and media personalities after the Manila Peninsula standoff on 29 November 2007

November 2004 –February 2006

MEMBER, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 1998-2001; 2001-2004; 2004-2007

A. Committee Membership

13th Congress

  • Banks & Financial Intermediaries
  • Energy
  • Export Promotion
  • Public Order & Safety

12th Congress

  • Civil, Political & Human Rights
  • Good Government
  • Inter-Parliamentary Relations & Diplomacy
  • Public Order & Security

11th Congress

  • Agriculture
  • Appropriations
  • Banks & Financial Intermediaries
  • Civil, Political & Human Rights (Vice-Chairman)
  • Natural Resources
  • People’s Participation
  • Public Order & Security
  • Suffrage and Electoral Reforms
  • Trade & Industry
  • Transportation & Communications

B. Priority Bills

  • House Bill No. 4251 – granting annual productivity incentives to all workers in the private sector
  • House Bill No. 4397 – strengthening the regulatory power of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to effectively enforce consumer laws
  • House Bill No. 4252 – increasing the penalties for non-compliance of the prescribed increases and adjustments in the wage rates of workers
  • House Bill No. 3616 – extending the reglementary period for the educational qualification for PNP members
  • House Bill No. 1842 – providing for the codification of criminal laws

C. Resolutions

  • House Resolution No. 65 – inquiry in aid of legislation into the politics and processes of the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) in granting rate increases to electric utilities
  • House Resolution No. 788 – creating a select Congressional Oversight Committee on intelligence funds to check and study the use of intelligence funds by government agencies to ensure that funds allocated therefor are utilized for the purpose they are intended


  • Executive Vice President, December 18, 2007 to present
  • Vice Chairman, March 17, 2006 to December 17, 2007
  • Secretary General, 2004 to March 16, 2006
  • Vice-President for Luzon 2002-2004
  • Secretary General, 1999-2002
  • Chairman of the Board, Central Luzon Congressional Caucus


  • Tertiary Education: AB Economics, Ateneo de Manila University (1977-1981)
  • Secondary Education: Ateneo de Manila University (1973-1977)


Date of Birth: 8 February 1960
Place of Birth: Manila
Civil Status: Single
Parents: Sen. Benigno “Ninoy” S. Aquino Jr. (†), Former President Corazon C. Aquino (†)